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Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Interference in the Domestic Politics and Economy of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2008 – 2019

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Добрый день! Уважаемые студенты, Вашему вниманию представляется дипломная работа на тему: «Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Interference in the Domestic Politics and Economy of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2008 – 2019»
 
Table of Contents
Introduction……………………….………………….……………………..…..2
Chapter 1: Literature Review……………….….…………………......7
1.1. An Overview…………..……………………….…………..………………….7
1.2. Theoretical and Conceptual views……………..……………………………...8
1.3. Empirical views…………………………………………………………..…...13
Chapter 2: Analysis of the impact of foreign interference in the domestics affairs of Bangladesh…… …………………….….……....19
2.1. Conceptual complexity…………...…………………………………………...19
2.2. Push - pull factors of foreign interference in Bangladesh affairs……………....20
2.3. Effects of foreign interference in the internal affairs of Bangladesh…………24
2.4. Foreign interference and democracy in Bangladesh…………………………..33
2.5. Foreign interference and polarization in Bangladesh………………….……....40
Chapter 3: Empirical analysis of the impact of foreign interference in Bangladesh affairs……………………..………….…………...…..….47
3.1. An overview…………………..……………………………………………....47
3.2. Survey results and interpretation…………………………………………….. 48
3.3. Expert depth-interview and questionnaires results………………..………….53
3.4. Statistical data, results and analysis……………………….………………….60
Conclusion ……………………..………………….……………...…...66
Bibliography…………….…………..………………………….......…68
Appendix 1………………………………………………….……..…..72
Appendix 2…………………………………………………………….72
 
Introduction
Foreign intervention and foreign interference is coercive in nature. They are an ancient phenomenon and well-established instrument of foreign relations and policies. Since ancient Greeks, some countries intervene and interfere in the affairs of other countries for their own interests and advantages, where other countries, in view of their interests, contravene such interventions and interferences to intervene and interfere on behalf of theirs.
There are different types of foreign interventions which can be understood in the context of Nye’s (2004) distinction between ‘soft power’ and ‘hard power.’ Soft power refers to the use of persuasion to achieve the desired ends, while hard power refers to the use of force or coercion. Similarly, foreign interference has been taking place in various forms, such as through regular diplomatic channels, outside diplomatic channels- either by official or a non-official of a state, lobbying, espionage.
In this globalization era, states are more interconnected and bilateral relations among states are much stronger than before, which paves the way for foreign actors to get involved with the internal matters of a state. However, the impact of foreign actors in the domestic affairs of a state, in many cases, threatens the national sovereignty of that state. In principle, national sovereignty is the right of a state to govern its domestic matters without external internal intervention and interference, but in practice, the scenario is opposite. Some states are intervening and interfering in the affairs of other states interpreting international law according to their ways, while others overtly and covertly interfering by the name of bilateral relations and development assistance. Thus, a dilemma arises as to whether external actors can
 
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interfere in the internal affairs of another nation. Many experts argue that foreign intervention could be considered appropriate in humanitarian cases (human rights violation - mass killing) which is called ‘humanitarian intervention’. Now it is necessary to justify to what extent foreign interference has been (or is being) legally, socially and morally permitted in the case of Bangladesh.
Therefore, the relevance of this study is that foreign intervention and interference have become a common phenomenon in Bangladesh since her liberation War (separation from Pakistan) and independence. From 2008, the dimensions of foreign interference have reached its peak in Bangladesh, and consequently she has been losing her own decision-making identity. A number of political elites and political parties support foreign influence and interference in the affairs of Bangladesh to maintain their power. Besides, there are many pull and push factors that are responsible for inviting and forcing to interfere in the domestic matters of Bangladesh. Furthermore, Bangladesh's strategic importance is enormous because it is located at the heart of South Asia and East Asia. So, the national sovereignty issue has become a central matter for Bangladesh. K. Jacques (2000) writes: “the focus on preservation of sovereignty and the development of national identity underlies much of foreign policy decision-making throughout Bangladesh's history”.
There has been limited research, on the one hand, on foreign interference in the internal affairs of Bangladesh due to a variety of reasons. On the other hand, there is partiality and domination because a number of writings on foreign relations, influence and interference are not conducted by the Bangladeshi scholars. As Kathryn Jacques (2000) in the chapter “General Influence on Bangladesh’s Foreign Policy” of his book “Bangladesh, India & Pakistan” scribes:
 
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“Studies of Bangladesh’s foreign relations since 1975 have been minimal, tending to be descriptive, biased accounts. The most common themes of those studies are ones which point either to Bangladesh’s turbulent political life and economic woes or to India’s desire for regional dominance as being the principal influence on regional international relations”
The research limitation toward foreign interference in the affairs of Bangladesh, and tolerate tendency and silence among many influential political elites and major political parties - due to their own interests - make research problems in this specific arena. Thereby, the goal of this research is to examine how Bangladesh has become a subject to foreign interference. For attaining this goal, two research questions need to be well-discussed and several research hypotheses need to be proved.
Research Questions
For enriching the research, the following research questions need to be well-addressed:
  1. How is national sovereignty of a country threatened by foreign interference?
  1. How do the strategic location and natural resources of a country become bases for foreign interference?
Research Hypotheses
  • H1: It has become easier to interfere in the internal affairs of Bangladesh now that it is a democracy than when it had been an autocracy
  • H1a: Foreign interference may lead to mobilizing a democratic country towards an autocratic one.
  • H3: Foreign interference in the affairs of Bangladesh can lead to growing political divisions and polarization within the country.
 
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In order to achieve the research goal, the following specific tasks will be accomplished:
  • To provide a conceptual and an empirical overview of the impact of foreign interference in the internal affairs of a country in academic tradition.
  • To analyze the push and pull factors of foreign interference in the affairs of Bangladesh.
  • To examine the effect of foreign interference in the domestic affairs of Bangladesh and
  • To prove that foreign interference threatens the national sovereignty, hampers the fair decision-making process of Bangladesh, mobilizes to autocracy, leads to the division and polarization within the country.
Methodology and Methods
This research is largely to be interpretative, and therefore the key methods will be qualitative. Quantitative analysis is also required for testing statistical data related to this research. In order to better understand the theoretical and conceptual factors, primarily an in-depth review of the relevant pieces of literature will be required. In the second stage, this research shall be focusing on how to prove foreign interference in the internal affairs of Bangladesh as follows:
1.1. In politics:
  • Looking at the participation of political parties in elections and comments of the foreign actors such as ambassadors, diplomats and intellectuals on elections.

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  • Looking at the role of international organizations and institutions, such as foreign embassies, international media, NGOs, business and so on in Bangladesh.
  • Reviewing and analyzing reports and surveys by international organizations, paying special attention to the set of criteria used and their scope.
  • Interviewing prominent international relations scholars, political scientists and regional experts who are considered authorities in the areas.
  • Analyzing public opinion after conducting a massive survey with questionnaires.
Bibliography
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Ayoob M. (2002). Humanitarian Intervention and State Sovereignty. The International Journal of Human Rights, 6:1, 81-102.
Chandler D. (2004). The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the ‘Liberal Peace’.
International Peacekeeping, Vol.11, Spring 2004,pp. 59-81.
Chandler D. (2015). The R2P Is Dead, Long Live the R2P: The Successful Separation of Military Intervention from the Responsibility to Protect. International Peacekeeping, 22:1, 1-5.
Judith G. Kelley (2012). International Influences on Elections in New Multiparty States. Stanford School of Public Policy and Department of Political Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
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Baines P & Jones N. (2018). Influence and Interference in Foreign Elections. The RUSI Journal, 163:1, 12-19.
 
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Mack, D. (2020). An Era of Foreign Political Interference: Impulsive, Overcompensation of Australia, and a Comparison of Legislative Schemes with the United States. Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal, Vol, 34.
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Jacques, K. (2000). Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: International relations and regional tensions in south Asia. First published in the UK by Macmillan press ltd and in the USA by St. Martin’s press, Inc., in 2000.
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