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Экономика (Английский язык). Short-term finance The first obvious method of financing export sales is through an exporting company’s existing overdraft facility with its bank. It is clearly very simple and convenient to finance all the ele­ments of the export contract (purchasing, manufacturing, shipping and credit) by simply overdrawing within the facility and replenishing the account with payments received from an overseas buyer. As business increases it is unlikely that an exporter can finance sales entirely from an overdraft, particularly as borrowing in this way may be more expensive than other forms specifically designed for export credit. Advance against bills. One form of short-term finance for the ex­porter is to obtain an advance of funds from a UK bank against the face value of a bill of exchange drawn by an exporter on an overseas buyer under the terms of the export contract. The exporter sends the bill to the bank which advances an agreed percentage of the value to the ex­porter immediately and undertakes to present it to the overseas buyer for collection. If the buyer does not pay the UK bank for the bill then the bank has recourse to the exporter for the loss. An advance against a bill is made only when unaccompanied by any transport documents relating to the exported goods i.e. it is a clean bill collection. The bank charges interest for the credit period of the loan and fees for the collection operation. Вопросы. When is an advance against a bill made? What happens if the buyer does not pay the UK bank for the bill? When does business increase? What is advance against bills? Why does the exporter send the bill to the bank?

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Работа пользователя А. Апелов
Работа содержит переводы текстов, ответы на вопросы, составленные вопросы, а также ответы на тест (выделены желтым маркером в документе). Оценка за работу ХОРОШО!
  1. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст, ответьте письменно на вопросы.
Short-term finance
The first obvious method of financing export sales is through an exporting company’s existing overdraft facility with its bank. It is clearly very simple and convenient to finance all the ele­ments of the export contract (purchasing, manufacturing, shipping and credit) by simply overdrawing within the facility and replenishing the account with payments received from an overseas buyer.
As business increases it is unlikely that an exporter can finance sales entirely from an overdraft, particularly as borrowing in this way may be more expensive than other forms specifically designed for export credit.
Advance against bills. One form of short-term finance for the ex­porter is to obtain an advance of funds from a UK bank against the face value of a bill of exchange drawn by an exporter on an overseas buyer under the terms of the export contract. The exporter sends the bill to the bank which advances an agreed percentage of the value to the ex­porter immediately and undertakes to present it to the overseas buyer for collection. If the buyer does not pay the UK bank for the bill then the bank has recourse to the exporter for the loss.
An advance against a bill is made only when unaccompanied by any transport documents relating to the exported goods i.e. it is a clean bill collection. The bank charges interest for the credit period of the loan and fees for the collection operation.

Фрагмент перевода:
Краткосрочное финансирование.
Первым очевидным методом финансирования экспортных продаж является...........
  1. Вопросы.
  1. When is an advance against a bill made?
  1. What happens if the buyer does not pay the UK bank for the bill?
  1. When does business increase?
  1. What is advance against bills?
  2. Why does the exporter send the bill to the bank?
III. Выполните лексико-грамматический тест.
Инструкция:  закончите предложения, выбрав один из предложенных вариантов. Объясните употребление каждого случая (письменно) на русском языке.

1. I was just getting out of the bath when the lights ______.
A) went off
B) went up
C) went away
D) went down
2. Don’t eat that cheese - it’s ______!
A) gone off
B) gone out
C) gone away
D) gone down
3. Jim said the switch was dangerous and warned me ..... touch it.
A) notto
B) not
C) do not
D) no
4. She said the letter was personal and didn't let me ..... it.
A) reading
B) read 
C) to read
D) read to
5. She didn't want ..... to go.
A) they
B) I
C) me
D) his
6. I know him ..... a good student.
A) is
B) to be
C) has been
D) was
7. Carol's parents always encouraged her ..... hard at school.
A) to study
B) studied
C) studying
D) studies
8. We are happy together, … we?
a) are
b) do
c) aren’t
d) does
9. She isn’t nice and amiable, … she?
a) do
b) does
c) Is
d) isn’t
10. I’m tall and pretty, … I?
a) aren’t
b) am
c) amnot
d) are
11. Let’s change the subject, … we?
a) should
b) are
c) shall
d) do
12. Nobody answered me, …they?
a) are
b) do
c) didn’t
d) did
13.Tom fell asleep _____the film.
a) watching
b) watched
c) having watched
14. The pupils opened their textbooks _______ the answer.
a) looking for
b) looked
c) having looked
15. _______the door of the house she went to her car and drove off.
a) closing
b) havingclosed
c) closed
16. _____-phoning him many times I sent him an SMS.
a) tried
b) trying
c) havingtried
17. She made her brother ..... into the water.
A) tojump
B) jumpto
C) jumps
D) jump
18. She didn't want her child ...... to hospital.
A) to take
B) take
C) to be taken
D) to taken
19.  Will you come along with us, … you?
a) won’t 
b) will
c) are
d) aren’t
20. Linda knows five languages, … she?
a) does
b) doesn’t
c) do
d) is
21. He can jump for 60 minutes without a break, … he?
a) can
b) is
c) can’t
d) isn’t
22. We haven’t got a chair, … we?
a) haven’t
b) have
c) have not
d) are
23. I didn’t send a letter, … I?
a) did
b) do
c) am
d) didn’t
24. ______ our cottage we moved to Florida.
a) selling
b) having sold
c) sold
25. Have you got anything _____?
A) reading
B) to read
C) read
D) reads
26. She is good at _____.
A) swimming
B) to swim
C) swims
D) swum
27. My father does the _____ himself.
A) to iron
B) irons
C) ironing
D) iron
28. If you ___ tickets we ___ Paris.
A) buy / shall visit
B) bought / visit
C) buys / visited
D) were buying / should visit
E) will buy / shall visit
29. If you are free, watch the film they ___ on TV.
A) shows
B) showed
C) are showing 
D) had showed
E) have showed
30. I have ____ time.
A) larger
B) most
C) bigger
D) less


IV. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст. Составьте письменно 4 типа вопросов по тексту.
VAT
         VATstandsforValueAddedTax. This tax is levied on most goods and services such as clothes, cars, etc. This tax affects everyone in the same way, as we all have to buy clothes to wear, fuel for heating and electricity to light our homes.
         Excise Duty is a social tax on tobacco, alcohol and oil. Even if the price for these goods goes up the demand doesn’t change much as people consider them essential for their lives, and so the government can raise a lot of money quickly by raising the excise duty on cigarettes, beer and wine, and most importantly, petrol.
         It was this last tax – on petrol – that led to Britain being brought to a standstill by angry farmers and lorry drivers in the autumn of 2000. Because of high oil prices these groups, who depend on transport for their jobs found it difficult to make ends meet and demanded that the government reduce the tax on petrol.

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