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Planning Factors that Cause Delay in the Implementation of Construction Projects in Developing Countries: the Case of Iraq

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Table of Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 1. Theories and concepts of project planning..................................... 12
1.1. Project planning: definitions and objectives.................................................. 12
1.2. The importance of planning................................................................................................... 14
1.3. Knowledge requirements for successful planning................................ 15
1.3.1. Project planning fundamentals............................................................................... 16
1.3.2. Planning and scheduling methods and tools..................................... 16
1.3.3. Project planning stages.................................................................................................... 18
1.3.4. Planning types............................................................................................................................... 20
1.4. The benefits of engineering planning...................................................................... 21
1.5. Factors affecting planning and scheduling..................................................... 22
1.6. Delay in the Construction projects............................................................................... 24
1.7. Elements of effective planning........................................................................................... 25
1.8. Time management.............................................................................................................................. 26
1.8.1. Project time control................................................................................................................. 27
1.8.2. Time management strategy.......................................................................................... 28
1.9. Summary of the findings from the literature..................................................... 29
Chapter 2. Research Methodology................................................................................................ 31
2.1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. 31
2.2. Research context - Iraqi construction projects........................................... 31
2.3. Research strategy............................................................................................................................... 32
2.4. Field study – the questionnaire survey................................................................... 35
2.4.1. Planning the field study..................................................................................................... 36
2.4.2. Data collection and study society........................................................................ 37
2.4.3. Distribution of the sample members according to personal variables 37
2.4.4. Designing the research form...................................................................................... 39
2.5. Statistical methods used in the study...................................................................... 40
2.5.1. The survey reliability.............................................................................................................. 40
2.5.2. Statistical Methods.................................................................................................................. 41
2

2.5.3. Chi-squared test.......................................................................................................................... 42
2.6. Analysis of survey results........................................................................................................ 45
2.6.1. Analysis of the first hypothesis factors....................................................... 45
2.6.2. Analysis of the second hypothesis factors............................................ 61
2.6.3. Analysis of the third hypothesis factors..................................................... 74
Chapter 3. Results and Recommendations....................................................................... 84
3.1. Results related to the main hypotheses of the study.......................... 84
3.1.1. The results of the first hypothesis....................................................................... 84
3.1.2. The results of the second hypothesis........................................................... 87
3.1.3. The results of the third hypothesis.................................................................... 89
3.1.4 Conclusion of hypothesis test................................................................................... 91
3.2. Discussion related to the study hypotheses.................................................. 92
3.3. Results of the research objectives............................................................................... 96
3.4. Recommendations.......................................................................................................................... 101
3.5. Study conclusion.............................................................................................................................. 104
3.6. Further research................................................................................................................................. 105
References.................................................................................................................................................................. 107
Appendix 1.................................................................................................................................................................. 112

Abstract

Project planning is one of the main tools for controlling project performance and controlling the project implementation period, and as a result of the suffering of most construction projects in Iraq from the delay, this study aimed to study and evaluate the impact of planning factors on the duration of the project. The research sample included medium and large construction companies in all fields of building construction, By including 31 participants in the project implementation process and 26 participants in the project planning process. The main research hypothesis was developed as follows: Do the planning factors affect the project implementation period? This major hypothesis is divided into three axes, which include 10 major factors and 37 secondary factors, measured by questionnaire. And through the statistical analysis of the data led to the conclusion of the most important factors: Lack of future expectations and work surprises, No confidence in approving the project plan, Wasting time and dependence on chance and The project plan lacks the ingredients for success, In addition to other factors discussed in the study.

Introduction


The purpose of construction project management is to plan, coordinate and control the application of project objectives in the most effective way [Harris, McCaffer, 2013]. It involves many processes and sub-processes, also includes the definition of project scope, cost estimating, roles and responsibilities of the project team, project stakeholder management, as well as the utilization of planning and control methods and tools. These require knowledge of the fundamentals of project management in order to develop successful project plans and schedules [Heagney, 2016], which are necessary for the delivery of the project in the exact time, cost and quality [Babu, Suresh, 1996; Whitty, Maylor, 2009].

In recent ten years, the Iraqi economy has grown rapidly and dramatically. Coincided with the growth and prosperity of the economy, the development of infrastructure and construction projects. In line with that the importance of the construction industry increased in the national economy. The construction sector witnessed significant growth and there are still expectations for an increase in the volume of investment, after projects that cost billions of dollars contributed to the development of the real estate sector especially the infrastructure. Iraq continues to launch construction projects despite the challenges facing Iraq. This is clear evidence of the renaissance in Iraq, which confirms the seriousness of the state and its continuity Which is no longer a random or temporary mutation, but characterized by integrated construction projects that serve all sectors, which contributes to enhance the commercial status and provide the elements of business for Iraqi and foreign investors. However, many problems arose during the implementation of construction projects; among them, two major concerns are delays and cost overruns [Ahadzie et al., 2008]. All parties concerned with the construction process realize that the delay in the delivery of projects according to the timetables set by the investors is the pest that destroys the material and moral profits of these parties, because of the loss of funds for both investors and contractors and the bad reputation of the government agencies that promote For these projects. The delay in project completion puts contractors under pressure, leading them to implement at low levels of quality. Along with delays and cost overruns, the consequences often faced are project failure, low profit margins, loss of citizen confidence in government-funded projects, and so forth. Such occurrences are not confined to Iraq, but appear to be a fairly common problem in construction projects where much researches have been concerned with the assessment of factors like schedule delays factors, cost overruns factors and risks, considered as either success or failure criteria with regard to project performance [Ahadzie et al., 2008; Ijaola and Iyagba, 2012; Le-Hoai et al., 2008].

The main reason for project delays is the poor management and engineering planning of companies through Failure of these companies to specify their goals accurately, and the development of strategies, policies, plans and time programs necessary for the logical implementation of the stages of the project [Ahern et al., 2014]. The process of administrative and engineering planning of the project rules, controls and indicators must be followed in order to develop plans for each project according to the circumstances and needs and degree of importance [Kerzner, 2017].

This research was carried out to determine the critical planning factors that effect on the duration of the construction project of Local companies in Iraq.

Research importance:

This research is important because the construction sector in is one of the most important economic sectors in terms of rates of activity, absorption of employment, and overlap with other economic sectors. The completion of these projects is closely related to the development and development of society, as the delay in the completion of construction projects, especially those associated with the vital facilities lead to waste in time, increase in spending and waste of human resources that could be exploited in other projects. The implementation time of the projects is also a competitive indicator between the countries of the companies and
countries to prove their ability and their engineering and technological development.


 
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